NHRI researchers develop a risk prediction model for lung cancer in never-smoking females in Asia

Lung cancer in never-smokers (LCINS) ranks as the seventh most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) showed screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) reduced lung cancer mortality rate for 20% in high-risk individuals in the United States. The mortality reduction success…

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NHRI reports progerin in muscle leads to thermogenic and metabolic defects via impaired calcium homeostasis

Mutations in lamin A (LMNA) are responsible for a variety of human dystrophic and metabolic diseases.Dr. Ya‐Hui Chi from the Institute of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research has previously reported the accumulation of progerin, the lamin A mutant protein that causes Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and an inner nuclear membrane protein…

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NHRI conducts longitudinal panel study to follow up health effects among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

The use of nanomaterials in industrial and consumer applications has resulted in a rapid increase in the numbers of workers exposed to engineered nanoparticles. Although no human illness to date is confirmed to be attributed to engineered nanoparticles, occupational epidemiological studies are needed to verify the health effects of nanoparticles.…

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NHRI researcher examines the functional activities of post-stroke plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (BChE) in chronic ischemic stroke patients

Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates the immune response and inhibits cytokine release after stroke. Post-stroke plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (BChE) are two major enzymes regulating the plasma level of Ach, which binds a muscarinic receptor on macrophages to regulate the inflammatory response after stroke. To date, the changes in the level/activity…

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NHRI reports cancer-derived succinate promotes macrophage polarization and cancer metastasis via succinate receptor

Macrophages form a major cell population in the tumor microenvironment. They can be activated and polarized into tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) by the tumor-derived soluble molecules to promote tumor progression and metastasis. Dr. Cheng-Chin Kuo and his team from the Institute of Cellular and System Medicine used comparative metabolomics coupled with…

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5-MTP ameliorates arterial denudation-induced intimal hyperplasia via opposing effects on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells

Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly among older adults. Despite the advent of medical technology, restenosis is still an issue after interventional procedures. Tryptophan metabolite 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP) has recently been shown to protect against systemic inflammatory responses. Dr. Shaw-Fang Yet from the Institute of…

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NHRI researchers conduct a benchmark dose study of prenatal exposure to DEHP and behavioral problems in children

Prenatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been reported to be associated with adverse effects on neurodevelopment that yield behavior syndromes in young children with an estimated median exposure lower than the currently recommended tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 50 μg/kg_bw/day and reference dose (RfD) of 20 μg/kg_bw/day. Given the…

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NHRI researchers reports the effect of cetuximab-based sequential therapy as a primary treatment in advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma

Head and neck cancer — including cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx — is the 4th leading cancer among Taiwanese men. Despite the progressions in the treatment of advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), its prognosis remain poor. Cetuximab (Erbitux®) is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)…

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NHRI researcher reports ZNF479 downregulates metallothionein-1 expression by regulating ASH2L and DNMT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma

Decreased expression of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) is associated with a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Dr. Jun-Yang Liou and his team from the Institute of Cellular and System Medicine reported that MT-1 expression was suppressed by 14-3-3ε, and MT-1 overexpression abolished 14-3-3ε-induced cell proliferation and tumor growth. The team identified…

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NHRI researcher reports carotid flow velocities and blood pressures are independently associated with cognitive function

A team led by Dr. Shao-Yuan Chuang from the Institute of Population Sciences investigated the association between carotid flow velocity, cognitive function, and blood pressure (BP) in a community-based population. A total of 1,684 elders aged more than 50 years without dementia were recruited from the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study…

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