NHRI researcher examines the association between oral corticosteroid bursts and severe adverse events

Dr. Hui-Ju Tsai from the Institutes of Population Health Sciences and collaborators examined the associations between steroid bursts and severe adverse events, specifically gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, sepsis, and heart failure. The research findings have been published in Annals of Internal Medicine. This video provides additional insight of the study. Citation:…

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NHRI reviews current status of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for immune/inflammatory lung disorders and gleans insights for possible use in COVID‐19

The broad immunomodulatory properties of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has allowed for wide application in regenerative medicine as well as immune/inflammatory diseases including severe pulmonary injury and inflammation such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with bacterial and viral infections. In light of the novel COVID-19 pandemic, MSC…

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NHRI researchers report expression of Nik-related kinase in smooth muscle cells attenuates vascular inflammation and intimal hyperplasia

Inflammation of the vascular microenvironment modulates distinct types of vascular cells, and plays important roles in promoting atherosclerosis, stenosis/restenosis, and vascular-related diseases. Nik-related kinase (Nrk), a member of the Ste20-type kinase family, has been reported to be selectively expressed in embryonic skeletal muscle. However, whether Nrk is expressed in adult…

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NHRI researchers examine post-stroke plasma D-amino acid oxidase levels as a biomarker for post-stroke dementia

Stroke is an important risk factor for dementia. Epidemiological studies have indicated a high incidence of dementia in stroke patients. However, no effective biomarker for the diagnosis of post-stroke dementia (PSD) has been established. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a flavin-dependent enzyme widely distributed in the central nervous system. DAO…

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NHRI researchers report post-treatment with Posiphen reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and neurodegeneration in stroke brain

Stroke is a major brain disease worldwide being the second leading global cause of death (https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/causes-of-death/GHO/causes-of-death). Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only US FDA-approved pharmacological therapy for acute ischemic stroke. tPA dissolves occluding blood clots at a very early stage of stroke, but its effectiveness is limited by a…

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NHRI reports Hes1 regulates anagen initiation and hair follicle regeneration through modulation of hedgehog signaling

The hair cycle represents a paradigm for studying stem cell quiescence and activation, as well as progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Adult hair follicles undergo repeated cycling of regression (catagen), resting (telogen), and growth (anagen), which is maintained by hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs). Adult stem cells maintain tissue…

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NHRI researchers examine childhood social context in relation to alcohol expectancy through early adolescence

Early initiation of alcohol use may not only increase the risk of problematic drinking and alcohol disorders but also trigger a cascade of emotional, physical, and social problems later in life. Therefore, early adolescence (ages 12–14 years), the period when alcohol initiation commonly escalates, has been targeted as a critical…

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NHRI reports mitochondrial oxidative stress drives chronic inflammation and maintains an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that promotes cancer metastasis

Chronic inflammation has been linked to cancer progression and metastasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce inflammatory responses, and prolonged ROS production is considered to lead to chronic inflammation. Mitochondria are a major source of ROS production in a cell. However, the mechanism of how mitochondrial ROS by Lon regulates cancer…

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NHRI researcher investigates the impacts of hazardous metals and PAHs in fine and coarse particles with long-range transports in Taipei City

Due to its unique location, the air quality in the Taipei Basin is often significantly influenced by long-range transported (LRT)-related dusts and anthropogenic aerosols originated from the Asian continent. Among the ambient aerosols, the associated metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the most important toxic components in urban areas.…

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NHRI researchers develop a risk prediction model for lung cancer in never-smoking females in Asia

Lung cancer in never-smokers (LCINS) ranks as the seventh most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) showed screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) reduced lung cancer mortality rate for 20% in high-risk individuals in the United States. The mortality reduction success…

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