NHRI researcher reports the role of ST131 in community urinary tract infection in Taiwan

Sequence type (ST) 131 is a dominant multidrug-resistant lineage of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli responsible for urinary tract infections (UTI) and bacteremia. Although there have been some longitudinal population-based studies on the role of ST131 clone in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli or fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli in bacteremia, few longitudinal…

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NHRI researchers report resident vs. non-resident human multipotent mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) interactions with B lymphocytes result in disparate outcomes

Multipotent human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) from multiple organs including the bone marrow (BM) and placenta (P‐MSCs) harbor clinically relevant immunomodulation best demonstrated toward T lymphocytes. Surprisingly, little in known on its interactions with B lymphocytes, which originate from the BM where there is a resident MSC. Dr. B. Linju…

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NHRI researcher reports lipocalin‐2 mediates the rejection of neural transplants

Cell replacement therapy has been investigated as a potential treatment for neurological disorders including stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. Intracerebral transplantation may, however, trigger an immune response that results in rejection of the engrafted neurons. Thus, understanding the immune mechanisms of graft rejection is essential to improve cell…

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NHRI researcher reports early sexual initiation and risky sexual practices are mediated through preceding-sex use of illicit drugs

The Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 has ranked unsafe sex as the 13th risk factors. Early sexual initiation (< 16 years) has been associated with various risky sexual practices, such as multiple sexual partners, sex with non regular partners, sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and condom…

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NHRI researcher reports nanoemulsion adjuvantation strategy of tumor-associated antigen therapy rephrases mucosal and immunotherapeutic signatures following intranasal vaccination

Mucous membranes serve as the primary barrier against pathogen at respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts. However, mucosal administration of vaccines induce minuscule immune responses due to mucosal membrane barriers and immune tolerances. Therefore, a safe mucosal adjuvant with high efficacy is necessary for antigen recognition by the mucosal immune system…

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NHRI researcher reports activation of M1 macrophages in response to recombinant TB vaccines with enhanced anti-mycobacterial activity

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a difficult to eradicate infectious disease. Although the Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has been available for decades, its efficacy is variable and has lessened over time. Furthermore, studies have shown that BCG vaccine no longer protects against newly emerged Beijing strains which…

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NHRI researcher examines the association between oral corticosteroid bursts and severe adverse events

Dr. Hui-Ju Tsai from the Institute of Population Health Sciences and collaborators examined the associations between steroid bursts and severe adverse events, specifically gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, sepsis, and heart failure. The research findings have been published in Annals of Internal Medicine. This video provides additional insight of the study. Citation:…

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NHRI reviews current status of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for immune/inflammatory lung disorders and gleans insights for possible use in COVID‐19

The broad immunomodulatory properties of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has allowed for wide application in regenerative medicine as well as immune/inflammatory diseases including severe pulmonary injury and inflammation such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with bacterial and viral infections. In light of the novel COVID-19 pandemic, MSC…

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NHRI researchers report expression of Nik-related kinase in smooth muscle cells attenuates vascular inflammation and intimal hyperplasia

Inflammation of the vascular microenvironment modulates distinct types of vascular cells, and plays important roles in promoting atherosclerosis, stenosis/restenosis, and vascular-related diseases. Nik-related kinase (Nrk), a member of the Ste20-type kinase family, has been reported to be selectively expressed in embryonic skeletal muscle. However, whether Nrk is expressed in adult…

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