Mucous membranes serve as the primary barrier against pathogen at respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts. However, mucosal administration of vaccines induce minuscule immune responses due to mucosal membrane barriers and immune tolerances. Therefore, a safe mucosal adjuvant with high efficacy is necessary for antigen recognition by the mucosal immune system and generation of broad-spectrum immune responses. Dr. Ming-His Huang and his team from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology developed a particle-based mucosal adjuvant at the nanoscale to deliver antigens across mucosal barriers, and progressed further to elucidate the impact of size on tumor-associated antigen therapy.
Dr. Huang and team demonstrated that uniform structures with ~200 nm in size induced the emergence of membranous epithelial cells and natural killer cells in nasal mucosal tissues, facilitating the delivery of protein antigen across the nasal mucosal membrane and driving broad-spectrum antigen-specific T-cell immunity in nasal mucosal tissues as well as in the spleen. In addition, intranasal vaccination of the nanoemulsion assisted the antigen to generate potent antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response. In the immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer cell migration, the antigen-specific cytotoxic activity allowed the tumor-bearing mice to reach up to 50% survival 40 days after tumor inoculation and significantly attenuated lung metastasis. These results provide critical mechanistic insights into the adjuvant activity of monodisperse nanoemulsion and give directions for the design and optimization of mucosal delivery for vaccine and immunotherapy. The research findings have been published in Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer. 2020 Oct 9;8(2):Article number e001022
Citation: Huang, CH; Huang, CY; Ho, HM; Lee, CH; Lai, PT; Wu, SC;L iu, SJ; Huang, MH. Nanoemulsion adjuvantation strategy of tumor-associated antigen therapy rephrases mucosal and immunotherapeutic signatures following intranasal vaccination. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer. 2020 Oct 9;8(2):Article number e001022.